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General Information on India

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India is known as the largest democracy in the world. India's diversity can be seen in her people, cultures, festivals, dresses and costumes, religions, nature and varying landscapes. India is the undoubtedly the spiritual seat of the world.

 

The diverse country is located in Asia in the northern hemisphere. The Himalayan mountain range crowns the northern border of India. New Delhi is the capital city and also one of its largest cities in India.

 

History of India

The diverse country is located in Asia in the northern hemisphere. The Himalayan mountain range crowns the northern border of India. New Delhi is the capital city and also one of its largest cities in India.

 

India became independent on 15th August 1947 whereas the constitution of Independent India came into being on 26th January 1950, thereby making it a republic nation.

 

Since Independence, India has peaked many heights and made great achievements in many areas. It is popular as the largest secular democracy in the world. However, poverty and rising population remain the dominant causes of concern. But, advanced technologies such as computer-software development and others have made the country proud in a big way.

 

Indian History

 

India is the hub of the rise and fall of some of the most popular ancient civilizations in the world. The Indus Valley Civilization, whose cultural traditions are still being practiced, rose on the banks of Indus River. The civilization came to an end due to the Indo - Aryans who came to India from Central Asia. Then, came the Aryan civilization, which remained, from the period of 1500 BC and 600 BC. It is also known as the Vedic range since all the Hindu scriptures including Vedas, Upanishads and epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were composed in this time.

 

In the 6th century BC, Hinduism split into two sections namely Jainism and Buddhism, as a result of the rituals of Brahmanism. Buddhism spread out rapidly during the 3rd century BC, at the time of the famous Mauryan emperor Asoka the great. But, it lost its relevance in India. In addition, Jainism never spread out of India.

 

The period between the decline of the Mauryan Empire and the beginning of Muslim rule in India included a series of kingdoms and empires like the Kushana, the Gupta and the Chauhans.

 

The defeat of Prithivi Raj Chauhan in 1192 gave way to the Muslim rule in India. The period is called the Delhi Sultanate, which also came to an end in 1526. Succeeding it was the Mughal Empire, which lasted for more than 350 years. The empire is known for some of the greatest rulers of the world, Akbar and Shah Jahan who constructed the Taj Mahal.

 

Indian history took a sharp turn when the Europeans entered India as traders. Gradually, politics could be seen in commercial interests and this paved the way of British rule in India. This era saw the First War of Indian Independence. The freedom struggle was led by the Indian national Congress under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi and finally, on 15th August 1947, India became independent. Unfortunately, then, India was partitioned into India and Pakistan. The constitution of Independent India was formed on 26th January 1950, thereby making it a republic nation.

 

Fast Facts  on India

Population:

1, 027, 015, 247 (2001 Census)

Area:

3.3 million square kilometers

Geographical location:

Lies between latitudes 8 ° 4' and 37 ° 6 ' north and longitudes 68 ° 7 ' and 97° 25' east.

Coastline length:

7600 km

Major religions:

Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism

National anthem:

Jan gana mana written by Rabindranath Tagore

National Song:

Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji

National emblem:

Replica of the Lion Capital of Sarnath

National flag:

Horizontal tricolor in equal proportion of deep saffron on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom. In the center of the white band is a wheel in navy blue
color

National animal:

Tiger (Panthera tigris)

National bird:

Peacock

National flower:

Lotus

National tree:

Banyan

National fruit:

Mango

National currency:

Rupee (One Rupee=100 paise)

National Sport:

  Hockey

National River : The Ganga or Ganges is the National River of India.
Population Growth : Rate The average annual exponential growth rate stands at 1.93 per cent during 1991-2001.
Birth Rate : The Crude Birth rate according to the 2001 census is 24.8

Death Rate :

The Crude Death rate according to the 2001 census is 8.9

Life Expectancy Rate

63.9 years (Males); 66.9 years (Females) (As of Sep 2005)

Sex Ratio

933 according to the 2001 census

Nationality

Indian

 

Government

Country Name

Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya

Government Type

Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.

Capital

New Delhi

Administrative Divisions

28 States and 7 Union Territories.

Independence

15th August 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule)

Constitution

The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.

   

National Days

26th January (Republic Day)

15th August (Independence Day)

2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday)

 

Climate


There are four seasons:
  1. winter (January-February),
  2. hot weather summer (March-May);
  3. rainy southwestern monsoon (June-September) and
  4. post-monsoon, also known as northeast monsoon in the southern Peninsula (October-December).

National Anthem

The National Anthem - Full & Short Versions

 

The composition consisting of the words and music of the first stanza of the late poet Rabindra Nath Tagore's song known as "Jana Gana Mana" is the National Anthem of India. It reads as follows:

 

 

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.
Punjab-Sindh-Gujarat-Maratha
Dravida-Utkala-Banga
Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga
Uchchala-Jaladhi-taranga.
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mange,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!

 

The above is the full version of the Anthem and its playing time is approximately 52 seconds.


A short version consisting of the first and last lines of the National Anthem is also played on certain occasions. It reads as follows:

 

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!

 

Playing time of the short version is about 20 seconds. The following is Tagore's English rendering of the anthem:

 

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India's destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee.

 

National Song

The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza:


Vande Mataram!
Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam,
Shasyashyamalam, Mataram!
Vande Mataram!
Shubhrajyotsna pulakitayaminim,
Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim,
Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim,
Sukhadam varadam, Mataram!
Vande Mataram, Vande Mataram!

 

The English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo in prose 1 is:

 

I bow to thee, Mother,
richly-watered, richly-fruited,
cool with the winds of the south,
dark with the crops of the harvests,
The Mother!
Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight,
her lands clothed beautifully with her trees in flowering bloom,
sweet of laughter, sweet of speech,
The Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss.